My choice of simulation uses a vortex particle method: Particles representing small vortices (called "vortons") induce a velocity field which in turn moves the vortons.
Tracking vortons means the fluid lacks numerical viscosity that erodes detail in simulations that use gridbased methods. Also, a relatively small number of vortons induces a pleasingly chaotic velocity field which drives a much larger number of passive tracer particles used for rendering. Effects authors can control the number of vortons independently from the number of tracers, thereby separately controlling simulation and rendering resolution.
Gridfree particle methods such as the one these simulations employ only need particles in regions where the flow behaves "interestingly", which is near vortices. Vortices induce fluid motion. They also represent a (potentially very high resolution) velocity gradient which implies that a gridbased solution would require twice or more the resolution in each direction so for example to simulate the same flow in a gridbased simulation would require 2x2x2=8 times as many grid points  and that assumes vortices densely populate the entire grid, which is unlikely. Furthermore, gridfree methods can conform to any shape without expensive regridding techniques.
This simulation provides multiple velocityfromvorticity solvers: Some simplify farfield interactions by providing integral treecode and a novel "monopole" method. Another uses a multigrid Poisson differential solver. A direct solver provides exact (but slow) velocity calculation for comparison with other methods.
In one incarnation, the algorithm exploits nearestneighbor information, and incidentally includes a new approximate dynamic nearest neighbor tracking algorithm that runs in linear time. In the nearestneighbor incarnation, the simulation approximates spatial gradients by comparing properties of each particle with that of its neighbors.
In another incarnation, the simulation transfers quantities from particles to a grid where spatial gradients are computed, then updates the source particles.
Vortex stretching and tilting plays a crucial role in the cascade from laminar to turbulent flow. For visual effects, authors can inject pseudoturbulence a priori. This simulation includes vortex stretching and tilting by computing spatial gradients of velocity, but games may elect to omit those terms if they inject turbulence artificially.
To handle stratified fluids and multiple fluids with different densities the simulation must handle baroclinic generation of vorticity. In principle that requires knowing both density and pressure gradients, but this simulation assumes pressure gradients come from hydrostatic equilibrium.
A particle strength exchange (PSE) approach facilitates computing viscous and thermal diffusion, thereby avoiding a need to compute highorder spatial gradients using a grid.
Effects authors can control flows using two methods: They can tune fluid flow parameters and they can use traditional particle operations such as commonly occur in visual effects packages, like emit, wind, grow and kill.
